Clinical pharmacokinetics of second-generation triazoles for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis.
Second-generation triazoles were developed in response to the quest for more efficacious and safer therapeutic options for the treatment of severe systemic aspergillosis and candidiasis. These agents include voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, and ravuconazole. The aim of this review was to present and compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of second-generation triazoles for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis, emphasizing their clinical implications. The MEDLINE, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and SCIndeks databases were searched using advanced search options, including the names of second-generation triazoles and pharmacokinetic terms as keywords. The intravenous administration of voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole results in stable pharmacokinetics of these drugs, with mostly predictable variations influenced by common and usually known factors in routine clinical settings. The high oral bioavailability of isavuconazole and, to some extent, voriconazole makes them suitable for intravenous-to-oral switch strategies. Except for intravenous voriconazole (due to the accumulation of the toxic vehicle hydroxypropyl betadex), dose reduction of second-generation triazoles is not needed in patients with renal failure; patients with hepatic insufficiency require dose reduction only in advanced disease stages. The introduction of therapeutic drug monitoring could aid attempts to optimize the blood concentrations of triazoles and other drugs that are known to or that possibly interact, thus increasing treatment efficacy and safety. There is a need for new studies that are designed to provide useful data on second-generation triazole pharmacokinetics, particularly in special circumstances such as central nervous system and ocular infections, infections in newborns and infants, and in subjects with genetic polymorphisms of metabolizing enzymes.