The changing nature of aquatic animal production.
Aquaculture will continue to grow, but environmental constraints will interact with changing consumer profiles and regulatory frameworks such that future growth will look somewhat different from the trajectories of the past 30 years. Availability and price of land, fresh water, feeds and energy, and concerns about pollution and the introduction of non-native species will be major constraints to expansion. New technology will evolve in response to these concerns. This new technology will be based on the principle of sustainable intensification so as to reduce the environmental footprint per unit of production and limit volatility in markets precipitated by disease and other production system problems. Markets and consumer demand will be reflected in the economics of the industry under more sophisticated regulatory regimes. More sustainable sources of the proteins and oils in fish diets, improved genetic management, and better health and production systems will continue to underpin the expansion of aquaculture into the 21st century and beyond.