Large chicory aphid (Uroleucon cichorii (Koch, 1855): Sterrnorhyncha : Aphididae) - invasive a lien a phid s pecies in the fauna of Belarus.
Uroleucon cichorii (Insecta: Hemipteroidea: Rhynchota: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) is an invasive alien species in the fauna of Belarus. In 1854 the species ha s been described by C. L. Koch from Germany. For the first time U. cichorii ha s been noted in Great Britain in 1876, in Estonia - 1894, in Romania - 1896, in Italy - 1900, in Belgium - 1901, in Crimea - 1903, in Latvia - 1924, in Poland - 1930, in Netherlands - 1939, in Finland - 1941, in Ukraine - 1945, in France - 1948, in Sweden - 1949, in Norway - 1953, in Denmark - 1954, in Moldavia - 1955, in Austria - 1956, in Czech - 1958, in Hungary - 1959, in Bulgaria - 1960, in European Russia - 1962 - 1964, in Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1963, in Serbia - 1963, in Lithuania - 1963 - 1980, in Macedonia - 1964, in Switzerland - 1967, in Spain - 1971, in Sicily - 1973, in Corsica - 1973, in Balearic Islands (Mallorca) - 1982, in Belarus - 1986 and Greece - after 1992. It is obvious that this chronological list describes a history of aphidological research rather than spreading of the invider across the European regions. As considered, the species has Mediterranean origin. Outside of Europe the species is known from Near East as well as Central Asia, Korea and North America. As host pl ants U. cichorii s.str. uses common chicory (Cichorium intibus L.) and related species of Cichorieae (Asteraceae). The species is known as a pest of common chicory (including leaf chicory) and endive. For the first time U. cichorii has been registered in 1 986. At present the species is common for C. intibus growing on roadsides and in other ruderal biotopes. During 1986 - 2018 U.cichorii has been registered in the all regions of the Republic of Belarus. The map of geographic points of registrations is given. It is obvious that the invider's expansion in the regions of Belarus is finished. The species is holocyclic and monoecious. Feeding on forage plants contributes to the loss of a significant amount of plastic substances, which leads to their dehydration an d slow growth, and, as a result, a slight deformation of the stem. U. cichorii does not initiate the deformation of leaf blades and the premature dying off of the inflorescences, and also does not lead to the formation of galls. Perennial data show the app earance of fundatrices from overwintering eggs in the third decade of April - the first decade of May. Further a series of successive parthenogenetic generations and the growth of colonies occur. The winged females are recorded in July - August. The appearance of winged males and normal females occurs in September - the first decade of October. The eggs are deposited in the end of October. The largest pe ak in the number of U. cichorii registrations occurs in July - August.