Bioavailability of zinc oxide nano particle with fly ash soil for the remediation of metals by Parthenium hysterophorus.
To investigate the interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with fly ash soil (FAS) for the reduction of metals from FAS by Parthenium hysterophorus were studied. The average accumulation of metals by P. hysterophorus stem were Fe 79.6%; Zn 88.5%; Cu 67.5%; Pb 93.6%; Ni 43.5% and Hg 39.4% at 5.5 g ZnO NP. The concentration of ZnO NP at 1.5 g did not affect the metals accumulation, however at 5.5 g ZnO NP showed highest metal reduction was 96.7% and at 10.5-15.5 g ZnO NP of 19.8%. The metal reduction rate was Rmax for Fe 16.4; Zn 21.1; Pb 41.9; Hg 19.1 was higher than Ni 6.4 and Cu 11.3 from the FAS at 5.5 g ZnO NP whereas, the reduction rate of Pb showed highest. With doses of 5.5 g ZnO NP the biomass increased upto 78%; the metal reduced upto 98.7% with the share of 100% ZnO NP from FAS. Further investigation with phytotoxicity the plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were affected due was mainly due to the recovery of metals from FAS (R2 = 0.99).