Pharmacognostical standardization and phytochemical studies on the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw.
A genus of plant belongs to the family Solanaceae well distributed in India more than 26 species which are found naturalised in India. Solanum torvum Sw. is a medium sized flowering plant in the Solanaceae family that is found in India, Malaysia. Transverse section of lamina showed the adaxial part has thick, short hump; the midrib and the adaxial hump have thin, angular epidermal cells. The upper part of adaxial hump has a few layers sclerenchyma cells. The inner layer of the adaxial midrib also has few layers of thick walled cells. The ground tissue consists of wide circular thin walled parenchyma cells with narrow inter cellular spaces. The vascular system of the midrib showed bi-collateral structure. Non glandular, profusely branched, thick walled, lignified epidermal trichome occurs as both on the veins and lamina. Physico-chemical standards such as Foreign Matter, Total Ash, Water Soluble Ash, Sulphated Ash, Loss on Drying, Water Soluble Extractive, Alcohol Soluble Extractive and Crude Fiber Content in percentage were estimated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of appropriate solvent extracts showed the presence of Alkaloids, Amino Acids, Carbohydrates, Cellulose, Lignin, Fats & Fixed Oils, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Tannins, Proteins, Starch, Steroids and Triterpenoids and absence of Volatile Oil, Mucilage and Pectin. Microscopic analysis and other parameters were informative and provide valuable information in the identification, standardization of Solanum torvum leaves.