Ethylene signaling facilitates plant adaption to physical barriers.
The morphological changes are usually observed in the terrestrial plants to respond to physical barriers. The phytohormone ethylene plays an essential role in the morphological development of plants encountering exogenous mechanical impedance, which enables plants to grow optimally in response to physical barriers. Ethylene is shown to regulate these developmental processes directly or in concert with other phytohormones, especially auxin. In this mini review, the involvement of ethylene action in seedling emergence from the soil, root movement within the soil, and parasitic plant invasion of the host plant are described.