Insights into the origin of the invasive populations of Trioza erytreae in Europe using microsatellite markers and mtDNA barcoding approaches.
The African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae is one of the major threats to citrus industry as the vector of the incurable disease known as huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening. The psyllid invaded the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula 6 years ago. The invasion alarmed citrus growers in the Mediterranean basin, the largest citrus producing area in Europe, which is still free of HLB. Before our study, no research had been carried out on the genetic diversity of T. erytreae populations that have invaded the Iberian Peninsula and the archipelagos of the Macaronesia (Madeira and the Canary Islands). In this study, combining microsatellites markers and mtDNA barcoding analysis, we characterize the genetic diversity, structure and maternal relationship of these new invasive populations of T. erytreae and those from Africa. Our results suggest that the outbreaks of T. erytreae in the Iberian Peninsula may have derived from the Canary Islands. The populations of T. erytreae that invaded Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula are likely to have originated from southern Africa. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for tracking the spread of this invasive pest outside of Africa and to be important for optimizing contingency and eradication plans in newly invaded and free areas.