Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Efficacy and effectiveness of the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease.

Abstract

Context: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) (pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine [PCV-13] and pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine [PCV-10]) are available for prevention of pneumococcal infections in children. Objective: To determine the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of PCV-13 and PCV-10 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children <5 years. Data Sources: Systematic searches of Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and Cochrane. Study Selection: Eligible studies examined the direct effectiveness and/or efficacy of PCV-10 and PCV-13 in reducing the incidence of disease in healthy children <5 years. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently conducted data extraction and methodologic quality assessment. RESULTS: Significant effectiveness against vaccine-type IPD in children ≤5 years was reported for ≥1 dose of PCV-13 in the 3 + 1 (86%-96%) and 2 + 1 schedule (67.2%-86%) and for PCV-10 for the 3 + 1 (72.8%-100%) and 2 + 1 schedules (92%-97%). In children <12 months of age, PCV-13 VE against serotype 19A post-primary series was significant for the 3 + 1 but not the 2 + 1 schedule. PCV-10 crossprotection against 19A was significant in children ≤5 years with ≥1 dose (82.2% and 71%). The majority of studies did not find either PCV to be effective against serotype-3. PCV-13 was effective against AOM (86%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61 to 94). PCV-10 was effective against clinically defined (26.9%; 95% CI: 5.9 to 43.3) and bacteriologically confirmed AOM (43.3%; 95% CI: 1.7 to 67.3). Limitations: Because of the large heterogeneity in studies, a meta-analysis for pooled estimates was not done. Conclusions: Both PCVs afford protection against pneumococcal infections, with PCV-10 protecting against 19A IPD, but this VE has not been verified in the youngest age groups.