Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Effect of the Mexican black scale, Saissetia miranda (Hemiptera : Coccoidea : Coccidae) in Iraqi agroecosystem.

Abstract

The presence and spreading of Mexican black scale, Saissetia miranda (Cockerell and Parrott) on fig trees (Ficus carica) in the orchards of the middle of Iraq (south of Baghdad) during 2017 and 2018 was detected. The insect was identified in international scientific centers by specialists in scales insects. Also, it has several generations a year, including one generation during the springand then entered aestivation during the summer when the temperature exceeded 45o C and two generations during the autumn and then entered the winter when the temperature ranged between 12 -18 oC and entered the insect hibernation in the stage of eggs under complete insect cover. The population density of the insect in the autumn more than in the spring and the insect was found on the modern branches and leaves and fruits, but the numerical density on the modern branches more than on the rest of the plant parts. Female body shape S. miranda was convex with color of the outer shell gradually changes from white to dark brown then black, body width rate was 3.69 mm and length was 2.01 mm, average number of eggs per female 920 eggs under field conditions, pale yellow egg color gradually turns to reddish orange hatching crawling nymphs with the same color of eggs and four pairs of legs and then turn into static nymphs characterized by the shape of her body with the emergence of a plan similar to the letter H on the dorsal side. The appearance of the Mexican black scale with the Planococcus ficus was reported in Fig. Parasitic cases of parasites belonging to the families of Encyrtidae and Cecidomyidae were recorded. These results serve to study invasive species of the Iraqi environment and applications of integrated pest management programs.