Molecular cytological analysis of alien introgressions in common wheat lines derived from the cross of TRITICUM AESTIVUM with T. Kiharae.
Background: Triticum kiharae (AtAtGGDD, 2n = 42) is of interest for the improvement of bread wheat as a source of high grain protein and gluten content, as well as resistance to many diseases. The use of T. kiharae for the improvement of T. aestivum L. is complicated by the fact that the homology degree of their genomes is low and this leads to an unbalanced set of chromosomes in the gametes of its first generations and the elimination of some genotypes. The aim of this study was to analyze the nature of alien introgressions and their effect on the cytological stability of hybrids obtained from crossing of bread wheat varieties with T. kiharae. Results: Using C-banding, the presence of entire chromosomes of T. kiharae in the karyotypes of hybrid lines (intergenomic substitution 2G/2B), chromosome arms (centric translocation T2AtS:2AL) and large inserts in the form of terminal translocations involving chromosomes of 1st, 3rd and 5th homoeologous groups of B- and G-genomes were found. Molecular markers revealed short introgression of T. kiharae into the genome of common wheat varieties. The highest introgression frequency was shown for 1A, 1B, 2A, 5B, and 6A chromosomes, while no foreign chromatin was detected in 4A and 4B chromosomes. A high level of cytological stability (a meiotic index of 88.18-93.0%) was noted for the majority of introgression lines. An exception was found for the lines containing the structural reorganization of chromosome 5B, affecting the main genes of chromosome synapsis in terms of their functioning. Conclusions: During the stabilization of hybrid karyotypes, the introgression of genetic material from T. kiharae into the genome of T. aestivum occurs in the form of short fragments detectable only by molecular markers and in the form of whole chromosomes (intergenomic substitution) and their large fragments (centric and terminal translocations). The level of cytological stability achieved in F10 by the majority of introgression lines ensures the formation of functional gametes sufficient for the successful reproduction of the obtained hybrids.