A global review of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) invasion.
Ligustrum lucidum is a highly invasive East Asian tree that successfully colonizes several subtropical and temperate areas around the world. Its invasion capacity results from a widespread human use mostly in urban and periurban settings, very abundant fruit and seed production, small bird-dispersed fruits, high germination rates, resprouting capacity, fast growth rates, low herbivory levels and tolerance to a wide range of light, temperature and soil. All these traits contribute to its ability to rapidly increase in abundance, alter biodiversity, landscape ecology and limit its management. This paper reviews the current knowledge on L. lucidum with particular focus on its uses, distribution, invasiveness, ecological and economic impacts and control measures. Most relevant aspect of the review highlight the negative ecological impacts of L. lucidum, its potential to continue expanding its range of distribution and the need of further studies on the eco-physiology of the species, economic impact and social perception of its invasion and early warning systems.