Transgenerational phenotype plasticity of invasive plant Xanthium strumarium seeds at germination stage.
Phenotypic plasticity is universal in plants. Some plastic phenotypes could be transmitted from parents to offspring through seeds, thus, the environmental information of the parents can be prefabricated in the Offspring, so as to improve the adaptability 0f the offspring t0 the environment. Seed germination is a very important step in plants establishing population and the initiation of invasive plants explosion. To date, however, it still remains unclear how the plastic phenotype is revealed at germination stage. The Objective of this study was to investigate the plastic phenotypes transmitted from parents to offspring at germination stage. To achieve the goal, we used self-pollinated invasive plant Xanthium strumarium as materials and got seeds from different control parents, then. we used seeds germination bags to simulate homomorphism experiment. Several involved traits of offspring from different parents are compared with the different nutrients conditions. The study shows that when parents grow in high nutrition condition, except branch root length, their Offspring values are all higher in high nutrition condition than in low nutrition condition. When parents grow in low nutrition condition, their offspring from low nutrition condition are better than those from high nutrition condition about germinating potential, cotyledon width, cotyledon thickness, plant height. This indicated that parents can transmit their adaptation to offspring through seeds. When parents grow in low nutrition condition, germination rate, germination index, cotyledon length, cotyledon width, cotyledon thickness and lateral root length of Offspring in high nutrition were still higher than those in the low. Our results suggested that not all parental phenotype can be transmitted to their offspring.