Bio-ecology and management of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a review.
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) locally known as fall armyworm is an emerging pest of various crops (maize, cotton, and sugarcane). It has polyphagous feeding nature and is distributed throughout the globe depending upon the climatic conditions. The cob of maize is its preferred food and is heavily damaged during the high pest population. Feeding of its larvae can cause a characteristic skeletonizing or 'windowing' effect with excessive fecal pellets in maize. Being holometabolous, complete metamorphic changes occur during its developmental process i.e., egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Among all stages, only the larval stage is very dangerous for crop production. At optimum climatic conditions, it completes its life cycle very quickly. Temperature and humidity play an important role in influencing the life cycle duration of the pest. Several control strategies have been adopted by small and large communities or researchers to control this notorious pest all over the world like biological, chemical, botanical, physical, mechanical, and cultural operations. Due to the quick knockdown effect of insecticides, mostly farmers rely on the use of synthetic chemical pesticides, they are unaware that its use is a major threat to biodiversity and causes pest resistance to insecticides (Ali, et al., 2015). Keeping in view the drawback of chemical control, other alternative strategies such as mechanical, physical, botanicals, and biological can be promoted around the globe. S. frugiperda is an emerging pest in Pakistan since 2017, so biological control strategies should be devised. Among Spodoptera species, FAW (fall armyworm) S. frugiperda is different from others and closely resembles S. litura and implemented on a national scale that can control its growth, minimize its population and prevent the country from environmental pollution.