Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Two phytotoxins isolated from the pathogenic fungus of the invasive weed Xanthium italicum.

Abstract

Alternariol and altenuisol were isolated as the major phytotoxins produced by an Alternaria sp. pathogenic fungus of the invasive weed Xanthium italicum. Altenuisol exhibited stronger phytotoxic effect compared with alternariol. At 10 μg/mL, alternariol and altenuisol promoted root growth of the monocot plant Pennisetum alopecuroides by 11.1% and 75.2%, respectively, however, inhibitory activity was triggered by the increase of concentration, with root elongation being suppressed by 35.5% and 52.0% with alternariol and altenuisol at 1000 μg/mL, respectively. Alternariol slightly inhibited root length of the dicot plant Medicago sativa at 10-1000 μg/mL, whereas altenuisol stimulated root growth by 51.0% at 10 μg/mL and inhibited root length by 43.4% at 200 μg/mL. Alternariol and altenuisol did not exert strong regulatory activity on another dicot plant, Amaranthus retroflexus, when tested concentration was low, however, when the concentration reached 1000 μg/mL, they reduced root length by 68.1% and 51.0%, respectively. Alternariol and altenuisol exerted similar effect on shoot growth of three tested plants but to a lesser extent. It is noteworthy to mention that this is the first report on the phytotoxicity of altenuisol.