An overview: the toxicity of Ageratina adenophora on animals and its possible interventions.
Ageratina adenophora is one of the major invasive weeds that causes instability of the ecosystem. Research has reported that A. adenophora produces allelochemicals that inhibit the growth and development of food crops, and also contain some toxic compounds that cause toxicity to animals that consume it. Over the past decades, studies on the identification of major toxic compounds of A. adenophora and their toxic molecular mechanisms have been reported. In addition, weed control interventions, such as herbicides application, was employed to reduce the spread of A. adenophora. However, the development of therapeutic and prophylactic measures to treat the various A. adenophora-induced toxicities, such as hepatotoxicity, splenotoxicity and other related disorders, have not been established to date. The main toxic pathogenesis of A. adenophora is oxidative stress and inflammation. However, numerous studies have verified that some extracts and secondary metabolites isolated from A. adenophora possess anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation activities, which implies that these extracts can relieve toxicity and aid in the development of drug or feed supplements to treat poisoning-related disorders caused by A. adenophora. Furthermore, beneficial bacteria isolated from rumen microbes and A. adenophora can degrade major toxic compounds in A. adenophora so as to be developed into microbial feed additives to help ameliorate toxicity mediated by A. adenophora. This review presents an overview of the toxic mechanisms of A. adenophora, provides possible therapeutic strategies that are available to mitigate the toxicity of A. adenophora and introduces relevant information on identifying novel prophylactic and therapeutic measures against A. adenophora-induced toxicity.