Pinofuranoxins A and B, bioactive trisubstituted furanones produced by the invasive pathogen Diplodia sapinea.
Two new bioactive trisubstituted furanones, named pinofuranoxins A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from Diplodia sapinea, a worldwide conifer pathogen causing severe disease. Pinofuranoxins A and B were characterized essentially by NMR and HRESIMS spectra, and their relative and absolute configurations were assigned by NOESY experiments and computational analyses of electronic circular dichroism spectra. They induced necrotic lesions on Hedera helix L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Quercus ilex L. Compound 1 completely inhibited the growth of Athelia rolfsii and Phytophthora cambivora, while 2 showed antioomycetes activity against P. cambivora. In the Artemia salina assay both toxins showed activity inducing larval mortality.