Physiological and biochemical responses of Ageratum conyzoides, Oryza sativa f. spontanea (weedy rice) and Cyperus iria to Parthenium hysterophorus methanol extract.
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. methanol extract on Ageratum conyzoides L., Oryza sativa f. spontanea (weedy rice) and Cyperus iria L. in glasshouse condition. Here, Parthenium hysterophorus methanol extract at 20, 40, and 60 g L-1 concentrations was applied on the test species to examine their physiological and biochemical responses at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after spraying (HAS). The phytotoxicity of P. hysterophorus was strong on A. conyzoides compared to weedy rice and Cyperus iria at different concentrations and exposure times. There was a reduction in photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content when plants were treated with P. hysterophorus extract concentrations. Exposure to P. hysterophorus (60 g L-1) at 24 HAS increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content by 152% and 130%, respectively, in A. conyzoides compared with control. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD)) were also increased in the presence of P. hysterophorus extract. Present findings confirm that the methanol extract of P. hysterophorus can disrupt the physiological and biochemical mechanism of target weeds and could be used as an alternative to chemical herbicides.