Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Fruit fly surveillance in Togo (West Africa): state of diversity and prevalence of species.

Abstract

The production and marketing of fruits, especially mango, in sub-Saharan Africa are threatened by fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). This baseline study analysed the biodiversity of fruit fly species, in mango orchards, in different ecological zones of Togo. Traps used to monitor the flies in the orchards consisted of dry baits, made from four types of parapheromones specific to the males of different species. Forty species of fruit flies were identified in the mango orchards in Togo. The most common species were Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis bremii Guérin-Méneville, Dacus bivittatus (Bigot), Dacus humeralis (Bezzi), Dacus punctatifrons Karsch and Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett). The invasive B. dorsalis and the endogenous species, C. cosyra were dominant in the mango producing areas of Togo because their prevalence were very high (B. dorsalis: 2.1 ≤ flies per trap per day (FTD) ≤ 472.2; C. cosyra: 0.34 ≤ FTD ≤ 97.28). There was no area free from fruit flies in Togo during the study. These results constitute an essential reference in the future evaluation of the effectiveness of any control activities initiated in Togo against fruit flies.