Influence of three insecticides targeting GABA receptor on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: analyses from individual, biochemical and molecular levels.
The fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a severe agricultural pest, which has invaded into China in 2019 and caused heavy damage to maize. The γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR)-targeted insecticides including broflanilide, fluralaner and fipronil exhibit high toxicity towards lepidopteran pests. However, whether they could be used for control of FAW and their possible mode of action in FAW remain unclear. In this study, broflanilide, fluralaner and fipronil exhibited high oral toxicity in FAW larvae with median lethal dose (LD50) values of 0.677, 0.711, and 23.577 mg kg-1 (active ingredient/artificial food), respectively. In the electrophysiological assay, fluralaner and fipronil could strongly inhibit GABA-induced currents of homomeric FAW resistance to dieldrin 1 (RDL1) receptor with median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5.018 nM (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.864-8.789) and 8.595 nM (95% CI 5.105-14.47), respectively, whereas broflanilide could not. In addition, the cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE) activities were positively response to broflanilide, P450 and GST to fluralaner, and GST and CarE to fipronil, respectively, compared with those of control. In conclusion, we firstly reported a notable insecticidal activity of three representative GABAR-targeted insecticides to FAW in vivo, and in vitro using electrophysiological assay. The GST is the primary detoxification enzyme for three tested insecticides. Our results would guide the rotational use of GABAR-targeted insecticides in field.