Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi on immature stages and feeding performance of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae.

Abstract

Maize is a major staple crop in China, and the sustainable productivity of this primary crop has been recently threatened by fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, invasion. The five fungal isolates, Aspergillus sp. BM-3 and SE-2-1, Cladosporium tenuissimum SE-10, Penicillium citrinum CTD-24, and Beauveria bassiana ZK-5 were assessed for their efficacy in causing mortality against first to sixth instar eggs and neonate larvae seven days post-treatment, and their effects on the feeding performance of sixth instar S. frugiperda larvae at 48 h post-treatment at three concentrations (1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108 conidia mL-1) were also assessed. The six instar S. frugiperda larvae were not susceptible to the five tested fungal isolates. However, B. bassiana ZK-5 caused the highest egg mortality of 40, 70, and 85.6% at 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108 conidia mL-1, respectively, followed by P. citrinum CTD-24 (30.6, 50, and 75.6%) and C. tenuissimum SE-10 (25.6, 40, and 55.6%). In addition, B. bassiana ZK-5 caused the highest neonate mortality of 54.3% at 1 × 108 conidia mL-1. B. bassiana ZK-5 and P. citrinum CTD-24 caused cumulative mortality, including 93.3 and 83.3% mortality of eggs and neonates, respectively, at 1 × 108 conidia mL-1. Furthermore, B. bassiana ZK-5 reduced the feeding efficacy of first to third instar S. frugiperda larvae by 66.7 to 78.6%, while P. citrinum CTD-24 and C. tenuissimum SE-10 reduced larval feeding by 48.3 to 57.1% at 1 × 108 conidia mL-1. However, these fungal isolates were less potent in reducing the feeding activity of fourth to sixth instar S. frugiperda larvae (>46% with B. bassiana at 48 h post-treatment). The tested fungal isolates could play an essential role as microbial biopesticides in suppressing the S. frugiperda population in China after further investigations on their efficacy are obtained in the field.