Assessment of the in vivo and in vitro release of chemical compounds from Vespa velutina.
Vespa velutina has been rapidly expanding throughout Galicia since 2012. It is causing human health risks and well-known losses in the beekeeping sector. Control methods are scarce, unspecific, and ineffective. Semiochemicals are insect-derived chemicals that play a role in communication and they could be used an integrated pest management tool alternative to conventional pesticides. A previous determination of the organic chemical profile should be the first step in the study of these semiochemicals. HS-SPME in living individuals and the sting apparatus extraction followed by GC-MS spectrometry were combined to extract a possible profile of these compounds in 43 hornets from Galicia. The identified compounds were hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, and fatty acid, and fatty acid esters. Nonanal aldehyde appeared in important concentrations in living individuals. While pentadecane, 8-hexyl- and ethyl oleate were mainly extracted from the venom apparatus. Ketones 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone and 7-nonen-2-one, 4,8-dimethyl- were identified by both procedures, as was 1,7-Nonadiene, 4,8-dimethyl-. Some compounds were detected for the first time in V. velutina such as naphthalene, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl). The chemical profile by caste was also characterized.