Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Development and evaluation of a recombinant VP2 neutralizing epitope antigen vaccine candidate for infectious bursal disease virus.

Abstract

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases. Currently, vaccination is the most effective method to prevent IBD. Medium-virulence vaccines can damage the bursa of Fabricius and result in immunosuppression. Therefore, it is essential to develop a safe and effective vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In this study, the five neutralizing epitopes of the IBDV VP2 protein were confirmed by neutralizing single chain variable fragment antibodies. Then, the neutralizing epitopes antigen (NEA) protein was constructed with five neutralizing epitopes and expressed by pET-27b. Furthermore, the immune effect and protective immunity of the NEA protein with the following adjuvants were evaluated in specific-pathogen-free chickens: oil emulsion adjuvant (OEA), double emulsion adjuvant (DEA), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) adjuvant and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The experimental results demonstrated that chickens immunized with NEA vaccines elicited stronger humoral and/or cellular immune responses and inflammatory responses than those in the NEA protein group. Chickens were protected in OEA, CFA and GM-CSF adjuvant groups, which were challenged with virulent IBDV BC6/85. Furthermore, IBDV RNA was not measured, and there appeared to be little apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius based on TUNEL histology and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in the OEA, CFA and GM-CSF adjuvant groups. Based on the experimental results, the advantages and disadvantages of adjuvants and industrial production methods, GM-CSF was found to be the optimal adjuvant. Therefore, NEA with GM-CSF adjuvant is a promising vaccine candidate against IBDV, and it provides a framework for developing other vaccines against infectious viral diseases.