Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates collected during 2014-2018 revealed dominance of O/ME-SA/Ind2001e and the emergence of a novel lineage in India.

Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in India with a preponderance of outbreaks caused by FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O. Out of the 11 global topotypes of serotype O, only ME-SA topotype has been reported in the country so far. Lineage O/ME-SA/Ind2001 and O/ME-SA/PanAsia are documented as the most dominant ones in terms of the number of outbreaks caused by them. To understand the distribution of topotype/lineages in India and their antigenic behaviour during the year 2014-2018, a total of 286 FMDV serotype O viral isolates were sequence determined at the VP1 region, and 109 isolates were characterized antigenically. All the isolates grouped in the ME-SA topotype, being distributed in lineage O/ME-SA/Ind2001 (within sub-lineages O/ME-SA/Ind2001d and O/ME-SA/Ind2001e), and a new group designated here as O/ME-SA/2018 cluster. The sub-lineage O/ME-SA/Ind2001e reported for the first time in India during the year 2015, replaced sub-lineage O/ME-SA/Ind2001d gradually, which was dominating since 2008. During the years 2014-2018, the sub-lineage O/ME-SA/Ind2001e was found to be the most predominant one whose mean evolutionary rate was observed to be faster than that of the sub-lineage O/ME-SA/Ind2001d. The codon sites 45 and 85 of VP1 were found to be under diversifying selection in a large proportion of trees. The common ancestor predicted for sub-lineages O/ME-SA/Ind2001e and O/ME-SA/2018 dates back to 2012 and 2016, respectively. The sustenance and spread of the new O/ME-SA/2018 cluster need to be assessed by continued surveillance. The Indian vaccine strain O/INDR2/1975 was found to provide adequate antigenic coverage to the emerging and prevalent serotype O lineages. The trait association tests showed frequent virus exchange among different states, which could be an important confounder in the region-specific assessment of effectiveness of FMD control programme.