Pathology and One Health implications of fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in an urbanized, free-ranging, black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in Brazil.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic neglected disease of worldwide public health concern. Leptospira species can infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and lead to a spectrum of disease, including severe and fatal forms. Herein, we report for the first time a fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in a free-ranging nonhuman primate (NHP), a black-tufted marmoset. Icterus, pulmonary haemorrhage, interstitial nephritis, and hepatocellular dissociation were the main findings raising the suspicion of leptospirosis. Diagnostic confirmation was based on specific immunohistochemical and PCR assays for Leptospira species. Immunolocalization of leptospiral antigens and identification of pathogenic species (L. interrogans species) were important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. One Health-related implications of free-ranging NHPs in anthropized areas and transmission dynamics of human and animal leptospirosis are discussed.