Uncovering the first occurrence of Tilapia parvovirus in Thailand in tilapia during co-infection with Tilapia tilapinevirus.
The recently discovered Tilapia parvovirus (TiPV) was the first Parvovirus confirmed to infect fish, causing mortality outbreaks in farmed adult Nile tilapia in China. Severe mortality outbreaks caused by Tilapiatilapinevirus (TiLV) to farmed tilapia in Thailand revealed the concomitant occurrence of TiPV. Out of ten fish farms screened, TiPV was detected in one site rearing juvenile red hybrid tilapia. Clinical signs included abnormal swimming, scale protrusion, skin and muscle haemorrhaging, exophthalmia and generalized anaemia. Histological findings showed extensive infiltration of lymphocytes, with increased melanomacrophage centres in the anterior kidney and spleen, erythrocyte depletion in the spleen and hepatic syncytial cells. Both TiLV and TiPV were systemically distributed in the body of moribund fish. The analysis of the near-complete TiPV genome isolated from Thailand revealed 98.74% sequence identity to the formerly isolated from China, together with a highly conserved and comparable genomic organization and with a 3 nucleotides deletion in the 5-UTR. The viral genome structure was highly conserved for each of its components, with nucleotide and amino acid identity ranging from 100% for ORF1 to 97% for ORF2, and with conserved HuH and Walker loop motifs within NS1. Taken together, our results document the first detection of TiPV outside China, thus for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, TiPV was detected for the first time during a natural occurrence in farmed red hybrid tilapia and involved in co-infection pattern with TiLV. Diagnostic investigations during tilapia disease outbreaks should include the screening for TiPV. Further studies are needed to elucidate TiPV genomic variance, pathobiology, including focussing on the outcomes of TiLV-TiPV co-infection patterns, necessary to enable risk assessment for the worldwide spreading of TiPV and to design adequate control measures against these emerging viruses in tilapia.