What do we know about porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) diagnosis so far?: a review.
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) was first discovered in 2016, almost concomitantly by two groups of researchers in the United States. The novel case was reported in a group of sows with chronic reproductive problems with clinical presentation alike porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), where metagenomic sequencing revealed a genetically divergent porcine circovirus designated PCV3. The discovery of PCV3 in a PDNS case, which used to be considered as part of PCVAD attributed to PCV2 (porcine circovirus 2), has garnered attention and effort in further research of the novel virus. Just when an infectious molecular DNA clone of PCV3 has been developed and successfully used in an in vivo pathogenicity study, yet another novel PCV strain surfaced, designated PCV4 (porcine circovirus 4). So far, PCV3 has been reported in domestic swine population globally at low to moderate prevalence, from almost all sample types including organ tissues, faecal, semen and colostrum samples. PCV3 has been associated with a myriad of clinical presentations, from PDNS to porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). This review paper summarizes the studies on PCV3 to date, with focus on diagnosis.