Rapeseed, its modifications and danger of dissemination in the natural environment.
Background: As a result of genetic research and intensive breeding works, rapeseed has become one of the most important oil and protein plants. In cultivation, conventional and genetically modified forms of the plant occur. As a heterogamous plant, it may cross with other related species and get across to the natural environment. Therefore, numerous researches have been carried out in order to evaluate the level of acceptable contamination of conventional rapeseed with the seeds of genetically modified rapeseed. There is a risk of contamination during cultivation, transport, and storage of seeds. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to evaluate the condition of rapeseed cultivation and the possibility of its dissemination in the natural environment as a result of cross-fertilization and seed contamination with other related species. In the first part of the work, economic importance and use value of rapeseed seeds is discussed. The main part of the work discusses the condition of genetically modified plant cultivation, with particular emphasis on rapeseed and the possibility of its spread in the natural environment. Conclusion: On the basis of numerous studies, it was found that there is a high probability of genetically modified rapeseed getting across to the environment, as it crosses easily with related species. Moreover, adulteration of the sowing material of conventional rapeseed seeds with genetically modified seeds was found. The danger of reducing insect population, especially of Lepidoptera butterflies, was also pointed out. Therefore, there is a need to monitor rapeseed cultivation, especially genetically modified rapeseed, with the use of quantitative and qualitative analyses, legal regulations, invasiveness estimation and range of occurrence, as well as risk evaluation of it crossing with other plant species.