Toxic mechanisms and pharmacological properties of euptox A, a toxic monomer from A. adenophora.
A. adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob. is as invasive plant known to cause toxicity in humans and animals. The plant's toxic activities have been associated with some toxic phytochemicals present in the plant. One of the major phytochemicals that have been reported to induce toxicity in various organs is euptox A (9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone). Previous studies have reported that the main target organs of euptox A are the liver and spleen. Although, many studies have reported on euptox A toxicity in rats and mice, the mechanism of action and the beneficial uses of this toxin as well as it potential uses have not been fully established in literatures. Therefore, this review firstly, aims at elaborating on the toxic effects and mechanism of action of euptox A to give basic knowledge to researchers to help in the development of strategies that will reduce its toxicity to the environment. Secondly, this paper will also report on some beneficial uses of euptox A in recent years as well as suggest some future potential applications of this toxin to help in the utilization of this plant resource.