Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Incidence of healthcare-associated infections with invasive devices and surgical procedures in Nepal.

Abstract

SETTING: Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. OBJECTIVES: (1) To report the incidence of health-care-associated infections (HAIs), (2) to compare demographic, clinical characteristics and hospital outcomes in those with and without HAIs; and (3) to verify bacterial types in HAI and community-acquired infections (CAIs) among inpatients with invasive devices and/or surgical procedures. DESIGN: This was a cohort study using secondary data (December 2017 to April 2018). RESULTS: Of 1,310 inpatients, 908 (69.3%) had surgical procedures, 125 (9.5%) had invasive devices and 277 (21.1%) both. Sixty-six developed HAIs (incidence=5/100 patient admissions, 95% CI 3.9-6.3). Individuals with HAIs had a 5.5-fold higher risk of longer hospital stays (7 days) and a 6.9-fold risk of being in intensive care compared to the surgical ward. Unfavourable hospital exit outcomes were higher in those with HAIs (4.5%) than in those without (0.9%, P=0.02). The most common HAI bacteria (n=70) were Escherichia coli (44.3%), Enterococcus spp. (22.9%) and Klebsiella spp. (11.4%). Of 98 CAIs with 41 isolates, E. coli (36.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0%) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (14.6%) were common. CONCLUSION: We found relatively low incidence of HAIs, which reflects good infection prevention and control standards. This study serves as a baseline for future monitoring and action.