Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Multiplex lamp detection of the genus Phytophthora and four Phytophthora species P. ramorum, P. lateralis, P. kernoviae, and P. nicotianae, with a plant internal control.

Abstract

Phytophthora species cause destructive plant diseases worldwide. All Phytophthora species, except for one, are listed as plant quarantine organisms in Japan. The exception, Phytophthora nicotianae is considered to be a domestic species. The injurious pests Phytophthora ramorum, Phytophthora lateralis, and Phytophthora kernoviae are invasive pathogens that cause tree mortality worldwide, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom. To effectively control Phytophthora diseases, we established detection methods that utilize the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the genus Phytophthora and the four species P. ramorum, P. lateralis, P. kernoviae, and P. nicotianae. LAMP primers for P. ramorum, P. lateralis, and P. kernoviae were newly designed in the present study. Our multiplex assay includes the detection of plant DNA as an internal control. When the optimum ratio between plant and pathogen primers was used in multiplex LAMP assays, 1 pg to 100 fg of pathogen DNA was detected with similar sensitivity to that in simplex LAMP assays. The detection of plant DNA in the absence of pathogens enables us to check for and avoid undesirable negative results caused by enzyme inactivation or the contamination of amplification inhibitors from plant tissues. The total time from sample collection to results is approximately 120 min, and, thus, our multiplex LAMP assay may be used as an accurate and time-saving detection method for Phytophthora pathogens.