Historical review and occurrence records of Callipogon relictus Semenov, 1899 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Gwangneung Forest, South Korea with suggestions for species conservation.
Biodiversity has been declining and extinction rates have been exponentially increasing because of land use changes, invasion of exotic species, nutrient enrichment and climate change. In this scenario, many international networks such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature have been making efforts to raise conservation awareness and preserve species and their habitats in many countries. The relict longhorn beetle Callipogon relictus Semenov, 1899 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is the largest coleopteran species in the Palearctic region and has a unique distribution compared to its congeneric species. Callipogon relictus has been protected by two Korean laws since it was designated as a Korean Natural Monument and an Endangered Species in 1968 and 2012, respectively. To improve the conservation of this species, ecological and biological data were obtained from studies performed during the last 12 years on its populations in Gwangneung Forest, the fourth UNESCO biosphere reserve in South Korea. Previously scattered distribution records of C. relictus from South Korea from 1932 to 2007 are therefore summarized and ecological features of adults observed during fields studies performed from 2008 to 2019 are presented. Based on the summarized data, we suggest different management measures and conservation efforts to maintain the size of C. relictus populations in South Korea, which can also be further used in the restoration of other endangered insects.