Seroepidemiological survey on chikungunya in endemic zones for arboviruses in Brazil, 2019.
This study aimed to identify the seroprevalence of chikungunya and its associated factors in the city of Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil. We also aimed to identify the spatial distribution patterns of positive cases. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a questionnaire about clinical symptoms, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and a 10 ml blood sample was collected and analysed by ELISA. For the bivariate analysis, we use the chi-square test, a prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval. A robust Poisson hierarchical regression was used to adjust for confounders. The Kernel density was performed for the spatial analysis. A total of 409 samples were analysed; of them, 70.7% were seropositive for previous exposure to chikungunya virus (CHIKV). High seropositivity for CHIKV was higher in female participants (75.5%; PR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), those aged 31 years or more (74.3%; PR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04-2.52), and those with elementary education level (75.0%; PR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.06-1.60). There were also high seroprevalence in those with less than a minimum wage per month (89.5%; PR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11-2.30), housewives (87.5%; PR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.24-2.18) and unemployed (80.0%; PR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.10-2.06). After adjusting for age, morning stiffness was the only chikungunya symptom that remained associated (PR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.06-1.37; p < .001). There was an area of high density of cases in the downtown and two areas of medium density in nearby regions. Otherwise, the higher seroprevalence rates were in the peripherical neighbourhoods. There is a hyperendemicity of CHIKV in Quixadá, and most cases are spatially contiguous. The main associated clinical sign is morning stiffness, but other factors such as low income and spending a longer time at home were significantly associated with higher seroprevalence.