Advances in control strategies against Spodoptera frugiperda.
The strategies for controlling the insect pest Spodoptera frugiperda have been developing over the past four decades; however, the insecticide resistance and the remarkable adaptability of this insect have hindered its success. This review first analyzes the different chemical compounds currently available and the most promising options to control S. frugiperda. Then, we analyze the metabolites obtained from plant extracts with antifeedant, repellent, insecticide, or ovicide effects that could be environmentally friendly options for developing botanical S. frugiperda insecticides. Subsequently, we analyze the biological control based on the use of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasitoids against this pest. Finally, the use of sex pheromones to monitor this pest is analyzed. The advances reviewed could provide a wide panorama to guide the search for new pesticidal strategies but focused on environmental sustainability against S. frugiperda.