Allergen analysis in patients with allergic rhinitis under 18 years old in Zhangjiakou area.
Objective To analyze the allergen detection results in patients with allergic rhinitis under 18 years old in Zhangjiakou area, and to understand the distribution of food and inhalant allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in this area. Methods Totally 454 patients with clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis under 18 years old who visited the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University from Apr. 2019 to Nov. 2020 were selected. The sera of patients were detected for 15 types of allergens to specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the differences of allergens in different ages, genders and months of treatment were analyzed. Results Of the 454 patients, 438 were positive for at least 1 allergen (the positive rate was 96.48%), and the positive rate of inhalant allergens was 71.59% (325/454). The most prevalent inhalant allergen was mugwort (52.20%, 237/454), followed by common ragweed (28.85%, 131/454) and house dust (28.85%, 131/454). The positive rate of food allergens was 67.18% (305/454), the most universal food allergens were egg (55.51%, 252/454) and milk (34.14%, 155/454). There were significant differences in the total positive rates of allergens, inhalant allergens and food allergens among the 1-6 years old group, 7-14 years old group and 15-17 years old group (P < 0.01). The positive rate of inhalant allergens in 1-6 year old group was lower than that in 7-14 year old group (χ 2=18.897, P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences between 15-17 year old group and 1-6 year old group or 7-14 year old group (χ2=3.959, P=0.047; χ2=0.818, P=0.366); the positive rate of food allergens in 1-6 year old group was higher than that in 7-14 year old group and 15-17 year old group, and the positive rate in 7-14 year old group was significantly higher than that in 15-17 year old group (all P < 0.001). Further comparative analysis showed significant differences in the positive rates of mugwort, common ragweed, cat epithelium, willow, house dust, house dust mite, dust mite, egg and milk among the 3 age groups (all P < 0.05). The positive rates of allergens in mugwort, common ragweed, cat epithelium and Streptomyces alternaria in male AR patients were higher than those in female AR patients (all P < 0.05). AR patients were mainly sensitized by single allergen (29.45%, 129/438), and the number of positive allergens was not related to the gender. The visit number of AR patients peaked in August (37.22%, 169/454). Conclusion The main inhalant allergens of AR patients under 18 years old in Zhangjiakou area are mugwort, common ragweed and house dust, and the food allergens are eggs and milk. With the increase of patients' age, the positive rates of food allergens decrease. The patients are mainly sensitized by single allergen and the visit number of AR peaks in August.