The first report of target-site resistance to glyphosate in sweet summer grass (Moorochloa eruciformis).
Sweet summer grass is a problematic weed in the central Queensland region of Australia. This study found glyphosate resistance in two biotypes (R1 and R2) of sweet summer grass. The level of resistance in these biotypes was greater than 8-fold. The glyphosate dose required to reduce dry matter by 50% (GR50) for the resistant populations varied from 1993 to 2100 g ha-1. A novel glyphosate resistance double point mutation in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene was identified for the first time in sweet summer grass. Multiple mutations, including multiple amino acid changes at the glyphosate target site, as well as mutations involving two nucleotide changes at a single amino acid codon, were observed. Both resistant biotypes exhibited a nucleotide change of CAA to ACA in codon 106, which predicts an amino acid change of proline to a threonine (Pro-106-Thr). In addition, the R1 biotype also possessed a mutation at codon 100, where a nucleotide substitution of T for G occurred (GCT to TCT), resulting in a substitution of serine for alanine (Ala-100-Ser). Understanding the molecular mechanism of glyphosate resistance will help to design effective management strategies to control invasive weeds.