Individualized antifungal therapy in critically ill patients with invasive fungal infection.
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection (IFI) affecting critically ill patients, followed by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). International guidelines provide different recommendations for a first-line antifungal therapy and, in most of them, echinocandins are considered the first-line treatment for IC, and triazoles are so for the treatment of IPA. However, liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is still considered a second-line therapy for both clinical entities. Although in the last decade the management of IFI has improved, several controversies persist. The antifungal drugs currently available may have a suboptimal activity, or be wrongly used in certain IFI involving critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to analyze when to provide individualized antifungal therapy to critically ill patients suffering from IFI, emphasizing the role of L-AmB. Drug-drug interactions, the clinical status, infectious foci (peritoneal candidiasis is discussed), the fungal species involved, and the need of monitoring the concentration of the antifungal drug in the patient are considered.