Relevance of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) has been a key cornerstone for the management of invasive fungal infections (IFI) caused by a wide array of molds and yeasts during the last three decades. Multiple studies performed over this period have generated a large body of evidence on its efficacy and safety, becoming the main antifungal agent in the management of IFI in patients with hematologic malignancies in several not mutually exclusive clinical settings. First, L-AmB is the most commonly used antifungal agent in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Additionally, due to the administration of newer targeted therapies (such as monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors), opportunistic mold infections are increasingly being reported in patients with hematologic malignancies usually considered low-risk for IFI. These agents usually have a high drug-drug interaction potential, being triazoles, commonly used for antifungal prophylaxis, included. Finally, patients developing breakthrough IFI because of either subtherapeutic concentrations of antifungal prophylactic drugs in blood or selection of resistant strains, require broad spectrum antifungal therapy, usually with an antifungal of a different class. In both situations, L-AmB remains as the best option for early antifungal therapy.