Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Investigating glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri biotypes from Turkey.

Abstract

Amaranthus palmeri is a troublesome weed which is growing in importance worldwide. It causes serious competition in many crops. A. palmeri was introduced into Turkey 4-5 years ago and appears to adapt to different environmental conditions. Monoculture cropping systems and repeated use of the same herbicides have led to development of herbicide resistance in A. palmeri to several active ingredients including glyphosate, in USA and in South America. This study was conducted to investigate the evolution of glyphosate resistance in A. palmeri in Turkey. Seeds of 21 A. palmeri populations were collected in Turkish citrus fields where control problems with glyphosate were reported. A potentially glyphosate susceptible A. palmeri population was collected from a maize field (GS1 biotype). Seeds of putatively resistant and potentially susceptible (GS) biotypes were germinated and transplanted into large pots, and then allowed to grow in separate greenhouse chambers to obtain F2 generations. After carrying out a preliminary test experiment to exclude the most susceptible populations, a dose-response experiment was conducted in which glyphosate was applied at the 3-4 true leaf stage at 0, 332.5, 665, 1330, 2660, 5320, 10,640 and 21,280 g a.i. ha-1. Plants were harvested 21 days after treatment and dry weight was determined. Glyphosate applied at the recommended rate (1330 g a.i ha-1) controlled GS A. palmeri biotypes by more than 95% while controlling the GR biotypes at about 45%. Among those biotypes, GR1 and GR2 biotypes were confirmed to have an incipient resistance to glyphosate. The effect of glyphosate on shikimic acid accumulation was determined. Results showed that the GS2 biotype accumulated 3.1 and 1.56 times more shikimic acid than GR2 and GR1 biotypes which demonstrates that there is a lower accumulation of shikimic acid in the alleged resistant biotypes than in GS1. These findings demonstrate some increased tolerance of A. palmeri biotypes to glyphosate, which reinforces the need to implement integrated weed management to control this invasive plant in Turkey.