Lantana camara essential oils from Vietnam: chemical composition, molluscicidal, and mosquito larvicidal activity.
Lantana camara is a troublesome invasive plant introduced to many tropical regions, including Southeast Asia. However, the plant does hold promise as a source of essential oils that may be explored for potential use. Fresh water snails such as Pomacea canaliculata, Gyraulus convexiusculus, and Tarebia granifera can be problematic agricultural pests as well as hosts for parasitic worms. Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are notorious vectors of numerous viral pathogens. Control of these vectors is of utmost importance. In this work, the essential oil compositions, molluscicidal, and mosquito larvicidal activities of four collections of L. camara from north-central Vietnam have been investigated. The sesquiterpene-rich L. camara essential oils showed wide variation in their compositions, not only compared to essential oils from other geographical locations (at least six possible chemotypes), but also between the four samples from Vietnam. L. camara essential oils showed molluscicidal activities comparable to the positive control, tea saponin, as well as other botanical agents. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) against the snails were 23.6-40.2 μg/mL (P. canaliculata), 7.9-29.6 μg/mL (G. convexiusculus), and 15.0-29.6 μg/mL (T. granifera). The essential oils showed good mosquito larvicidal activities with 24-h LC50 values of 15.1-29.0 μg/mL, 26.4-53.8 μg/mL, and 20.8-59.3 μg/mL against Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The essential oils were more toxic to snails and mosquito larvae than they were to the non-target water bug, Diplonychus rusticus (24-h LC50=103.7-162.5 μg/mL). Sesquiterpene components of the essential oils may be acting as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. These results suggest that the invasive plant, L. camara, may be a renewable botanical pesticidal agent.