Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Plant growth-promoting abilities and community structure of culturable endophytic bacteria from the fruit of an invasive plant Xanthium italicum.

Abstract

Diversity of endophytic bacterial communities of capsular fruit, upper and lower seeds of an invasive plant Xanthium italicum growing in Xinjiang, China, was investigated. All isolates from the seed capsules, the upper seeds, and the lower seeds were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequences were compared to bacterial databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Finally, we obtained 316 endophytic isolates corresponding to 58 OTUs based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Bacillus zhangzhouensis and comprised 9.49% of all bacterial isolates. The richness and diversity of endophytes in lower seeds were higher than that of the upper seeds; moreover, the Chao estimator and Shannon index of endophytes in the lower seeds were approximate to that in the seed capsules. Bacillus and Staphylococcus were found as the common taxa in three different tissues that were investigated (OTUs belong to these genera constituted > 70% of the total community). The bacterial endophytic communities differed significantly among these three fruit tissues, especially Bacillus strains, which have been reported to contribute to plant growth promotion and stress resilience to their hosts in harsh environment; abundance of Bacillus species was in the following order: capsules (78 OTUs) > lower seeds (55 OTUs) > upper seeds (40 OTUs). The lower seeds harboring more Bacillus species might be responsible for their earlier seed germination compared with the upper seeds.