Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Temperature-dependent phenology of the parasitoid Fopius arisanus on the host Bactrocera dorsalis.

Abstract

Fopius arisanus (Sonan), an egg-pupal parasitoid of numerous fruit fly species, was recently introduced into Africa for the control of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, life-table data of F. arisanus were generated under laboratory conditions at six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 28 and 35°C; 75% RH, L12:D12 photoperiod) and under variable conditions in a screenhouse on B. dorsalis. Several non-linear functions were fitted to model species development, mortality, longevity and oviposition using the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. The established phenology models were stochastically simulated at variable temperatures to estimate the life table parameters. Fopius arisanus completed development from egg to adult at all the temperatures tested except at 35°C. Mean developmental time from egg to adult was inversely proportional to the temperature. The minimum temperature threshold (Tmin) from egg to adult was 8.15°C, while the maximum temperature threshold (Tmax) was estimated at 34.2°C. The optimal temperature for immature stages survival was predicted for 20-30°C. The optimum fecundity estimated was 251 eggs/female at 22°C. Following the stochastic simulations under natural conditions of the selected agro-ecological zones, it appears that the Humid Forest with Bimodal Rainfall provides a suitable thermal condition for potential population growth of F. arisanus. The present study shows the importance of temperature on the demographic parameters of F. arisanus. Implications of present findings on the biological control of B. dorsalis under climate change scenarios is discussed.