Response of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia) and four mangrove species to imazamox and carfentrazone-ethyl herbicides.
Mangroves are a critical component of many coastal ecosystems in Florida. Woody species, including Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), have invaded thousands of hectares of mangrove habitat. The difficulty associated with ground-based management of invasive plants in mangrove communities has warranted a need to identify selective herbicides that can be applied aerially. Recent work suggests that Florida mangrove species are extremely sensitive to synthetic auxin herbicides; however, other herbicides have yet to be tested for selectivity. Greenhouse studies in 2018 and 2019 evaluated broadcast foliar applications of the acetolactate synthase inhibitor imazamox and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor carfentrazone-ethyl, both as individual treatments and in combinations, for control of S. terebinthifolia and injury to four non-target mangrove species. Across all posttreatment sample dates and species tested, there were no significant interactions between imazamox applied at 0.28 or 0.56 kg ai ha- 1 in combination with carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0 or 0.1 kg ha- 1. Main effects of imazamox applied at 0.56 kg ai ha- 1 and carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0.1 kg ha- 1 resulted in 99% and 97% defoliation, respectively, of Schinus terebinthifolia at 180 DAT. However, S. terebinthifolia percent survival was 56% and 44% for the same treatments. Both herbicides severely injured all four mangroves by 90 DAT and resulted in 58% to 100% defoliation across species. At 180 DAT, significant increases in percent cambium kill were also observed for all four species. Across species, mangrove survival varied, but red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) survival was reduced to 6% when imazamox was applied at 0.56 kg ha- 1. These results indicate both imazamox and carfentrazone-ethyl exhibit activity on S. terebinthifolia but also injure all four mangroves enough to preclude their use as selective treatments.