Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Local climate adaptation and gene flow in the native range of two co-occurring fruit moths with contrasting invasiveness.

Abstract

Invasive species pose increasing threats to global biodiversity and ecosystems. While previous studies have characterized successful invaders based on ecological traits, characteristics related to evolutionary processes have rarely been investigated. Here we compared gene flow and local adaptation using demographic analyses and outlier tests in two co-occurring moth pests across their common native range of China, one of which (the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii) has maintained its native distribution, while the other (the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta) has expanded its range globally during the past century. We found that both species showed a pattern of genetic differentiation and an evolutionary history consistent with a common southwestern origin and northward expansion in their native range. However, for the noninvasive species, genetic differentiation was closely aligned with the environment, and there was a relatively low level of gene flow, whereas in the invasive species, genetic differentiation was associated with geography. Genome scans indicated stronger patterns of climate-associated loci in the noninvasive species. While strong local adaptation and reduced gene flow across its native range may have decreased the invasiveness of C. sasakii, this requires further validation with additional comparisons of invasive and noninvasive species across their native range.