Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Concentration addition and independent action assessments of the binary mixtures of four toxicants on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) mortality.

Abstract

Researchers most often focus on individual toxicants when identifying effective chemical control agents for aquatic invasive species; however, toxicant mixtures may elicit synergistic effects. Synergistic effects may decrease required concentrations and shorten exposure durations for treatments. We investigated four toxicants (EarthTec QZ, Clam-Trol CT-2, niclosamide, and potassium chloride) that have been considered to control invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771). We determined the toxicity of binary mixtures for five different mixture ratios to adult mussels. We compared our observations to predictions made with concentration addition and independent action paradigms, as based on the dose-response relationships of each individual toxicant. We calculated the model deviation ratio for each combination at the LC50 and LC90 and identified three possible interactions: synergy, antagonism, and additivity. We found that mixtures of niclosamide and Clam-Trol CT-2 were the most synergistic while mixtures that included potassium chloride were largely additive to antagonistic. The use of synergistic combinations has potential to decrease the overall volume and concentration of individual toxicants required for dreissenid mussel treatments, thereby decreasing cost.