Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Elevated CO2-mediated plant VOCs change aggravates invasive thrips occurrence by altering their host-selection behaviour.

Abstract

Globally rising atmosphere CO2 has been predicted to affect the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the interaction with insect herbivores. CO2-mediated plant VOCs change might contribute to develop effective management strategies for insect pests by using VOCs related biological control methods. In this study, we analysed the effect of elevated CO2 on the host-selection behaviour of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and studied how they were affected by the release of VOCs from kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris). A four-chamber olfactometer was used to quantify the host-selection of F. occidentalis for P. vulgaris. Elevated CO2 increased F. occidentalis' selection for P. vulgaris wounded by mechanical damage (MD) and thrips infestation (TI) that might via regulating the gene expression of CSP1, CSP1-q, OBP1 and OBP1-q in F. occidentalis. Besides, we cultivated kidney beans at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (800 ppm), and quantified the emission of plant VOCs by using GC-MS. Thirty VOCs belonging to ten chemical groups were identified from P. vulgaris, including aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers, alkanes, cycloalkanes, alcohols, alkenes, aromatic derivatives, phenols, ketones and esters. Furthermore, six VOCs from P. vulgaris were significantly affected by CO2 level, wounding way and the interaction between them, including ethyl benzene, 1,3-dimethyl benzene, 1,3-dimethyl-4-ethyl benzene, (E,E,E,E)-squalene, 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and dioctyl phthalate. Our study indicates that elevated CO2 might increase the host-selection of F. occidentalis for wounded P. vulgaris due to the changed plant VOCs.