Toxicicity and histological changes caused by insecticides in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs.
Insecticides typically are used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in corn crops; however, both eggs and larvae are affected by these applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 9 insecticides commonly used on corn crops in Brazil on ovicide and embryonic development of S. frugiperda. The insecticides were applied with an airbrush to the outer surface of eggs at 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after oviposition. Larval emergence rates then were calculated. Eggs in the control and the alpha-cypermethrin and methomyl + novaluron treatment were evaluated by light microscopy to investigate possible histological changes in the embryos. The insecticides methomyl + novaluron, chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin reduced the emergence rate of S. frugiperda larvae. A mixture of alphacypermethrin and methomyl + novaluron did not affect the embryonic development of S. frugiperda; however, methomyl + novaluron-treated larvae did not emerge. Therefore, the insecticides methomyl + novaluron, chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin have an ovicidal effect and may be recommended for managing S. frugiperda.