Tropical and subtropical Ostreidae of the American Pacific: fisheries, aquaculture, management, and conservation.
Oysters are one of the most important groups in terms of production by fisheries and aquaculture in developed countries of temperate areas. In subtropical and tropical regions, oyster species are economic important resources but many are exploited in an artisanal way and without a legal framework, what can result in overexploitation. One alternative is aquaculture but biological information and development of techniques for local species are required. Therefore, this review organizes information on subtropical and tropical oysters from the American Pacific addressing on their fisheries, cultivation, management, and conservation. The study focuses on two native species Striostrea prismatica and Crassostrea corteziensis and two introduced species Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea sikamea having more information and technological development. Fisheries and their problems are analyzed and some alternatives are proposed to improve their organization and preservation. The most important aquaculture technological aspects are described including the processes for the production of spat in hatcheries and the techniques used for field cultivation. Biological, physiological, and ecological studies as well as the implementation of legal measures are required to administrate, restore, and recover fisheries. The aquaculture of C. corteziensis and S. prismatica presents great advances but the other native species require the development of technologies to progress in many aspects. The production of C. sikamea is concentrated in one region without expecting further expansion, and the cultivation of C. gigas can be recreated on various sites and expanded to estuaries in tropical areas.