Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Ecotoxicological evaluation of fruit extracts from yerba mate progenies (Ilex paraguariensis a St-Hil.): a natural biopesticide.

Abstract

This study evaluated the biocidal activity of aqueous fruit extracts from Ilex paraguariensis progenies at different ripening stages in two ecotoxicity assays using Pomacea canaliculata juveniles and Danio rerio larvae. Mutagenicity was verified by the Salmonella/microsome assay (TA 98 and TA 100) in the presence and absence of hepatic metabolism in vitro. The results showed that the snails were more sensitive than the larvae to the P.1 progeny extracts in all three evaluated ripening stages. P.3 progeny extracts were the most toxic to Danio rerio larvae after 96 hours of exposure. The toxicity results indicate that the progenies' selection influenced the metabolic contents present in the fruits in all ripening stages over time, indicating high molluscicidal activity for the P.1 progeny. In the Salmonella/microsome assays, the semi-ripe and ripe extracts from progenies P.1 and P.3 showed mainly base pair substitution mutation in assays with metabolism, but at higher doses than the toxic concentrations detected for Danio rerio or Pomacea canaliculata. Therefore, the toxicological investigation of the progenies' extracts can be interesting, given the selection of plant materials influenced the response of the bioassays.