Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Area-wide insecticide resistance and endosymbiont incidence in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (B biotype): a Neotropical context.

Abstract

Agriculture insecticides are used against insect pest species, but are able to change community structure in contaminated habitats, and also the genetic pool of exposed individuals. In fact, the latter effect is a relevant tool to in situ biomonitoring of pollutant contamination and impact, besides its practical economic and management concerns. This takes place because the emergence of individuals with resistance to insecticides is particularly frequent among insect pest species and usually enhances insecticide overuse and crop losses. Pest insects of global prominence such as whiteflies are a focus of attention due to problems with insecticide resistance and association with endosymbionts, as the case of the invasive putative species Bemisia tabaci MEAM1. The scenario is particularly complex in the Neotropics, where insecticide use is ubiquitous, but whose spatial scale of occurrence is usually neglected. Here we explored the spatial-dependence of both phenomena in MEAM1 whiteflies recording resistance to two widely used insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin and spiromesifen, and endosymbiont co-occurrence. Resistance to both insecticides was frequent exhibiting low to moderate frequency of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and moderate to high frequency of spiromesifen resistance. Among the prevailing whitefly endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus were markedly absent. In contrast, Hamiltonella and Rickettsia prevailed and their incidence was correlated. Furthermore, Rickettsia endosymbionts were particularly associated with lambda-cyhalothrin susceptibility. These traits were spatially dependent with significant variation taking place within an area of about 700 Km2. Such findings reinforce the notion of endosymbiont-associated resistance to insecticides, and also of their local incidence allowing spatial mapping and locally-targeted mitigation.