Molecular determination of zoonotic Microsporidia from feral pigeon (Columba livia) in Japan.
To determine the prevalence of zoonotic Microsporidia from feral pigeon (Columba livia) in Japan, a total of 108 feces, which were collected in prefectures of Chiba and Nagano, was examined using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, two species of Microsporidia belonging to genus Encephalitozoon were detected from six cases (5.6%: 6/108). In details, E. hellem was determined in one case (0.9%: 1/108) and E. cuniculi was confirmed in three cases (2.8%: 3/108). In addition, coinfection of E. hellem and E. cuniculi was demonstrated in two cases (1.9%: 2/108). According to genotyping analysis, all isolates of E. hellem and E. cuniculi were identified as genotype 2B and genotype III, respectively, due to the consistency of DNA base pairs. It is likely to be low risk that the feral pigeon plays a role of reservoir for human Microsporidia infection in Japan.